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10th-Sep-2011 04:00 pm - Kalpita Sangita
Kalpita Sangita

Modern Karnatak music was born on the banks of the Kaveri at the time of the Trinity (18th-19th century). It consists of kalpita sangita (composed music) and manodharma sangita (extempore music). Kalpita sangita is made up of geetham, for beginners, varnam, which is the foundation of the musical edifice, and kriti, a three-part composition.


The Varnam is generally song at the beginning of the concert and is regarded as a warming-up exercise. But it has great intellectual and aesthetic beauty and there are very few musicians (Veena Dhanammal one of them) who have given it importance that it deserves. There are two types of Varnams – tanavarnam for music and padavarnam for dance. The former has very little sahityam and more of swara passages; while the latter has more sahitya for abhinaya (interpretation). Most of popular varnams are composed by the musicians of the Tanjavur court in the 19th century.

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3rd-Aug-2011 09:07 pm - Jathiswaram


Jathiswarams brings out three aspects of dance – unity of music, rhythm and movements. Ragam and thalam are the major aspects of Jathiswaram.

Raga can be understood as special musical space where certain patterns of swaras or tunes live in. Raga has it own mood. It guides flow of melody as cannel guides the river.

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2nd-Aug-2011 08:12 pm - Alarippu

Before starting performance we need to create its atmosphere first. We need to create special time and space environment of dance. In Natya Shastra Bharata Muni said that dance is of divine origin, it connects higher worlds of Gods with the Earth.

Space of the stage becomes point of this connection for the period of performance where higher world enters casual reality and penetrates further through the hearts of people watching it.

Thus, it is important to arrange place and time properly. Simple and exact rhythm of Alarippu adjusts flow of time to the tempo of dance. Rhythm synchronizes heart beats of dancer, musicians and spectators.
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22nd-Jul-2011 10:19 pm - Natyam

Today Seetheram Sir said that Natya comprise dance, music, thalam, and bhavam. They are always together.

Thalam is inner life of Natyam. Music is soul of Natyam. Bhavam is essence of Natyam.

Bhavam is everywhere - in dance, in everyday speech, in every moment of life.

Thinking about the place of dance, I wanted to understand, what was the environment of Sadir in medieval South India? I found the answer in wonderful book “Nityasumangali” by Saskia C. Kersenboom.

Sacred ground of South Indian temple

For Hindus, the temple is “the place where the world-order is brought to life, in actu, where its battles are fought, and the ultimate victory of the good is celebrated… In the temple, the clashing universal forces are brought under control; divine power is very efficiently present within its walls.”

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18th-Jul-2011 10:31 am - Art
Art is international language in which mind can speak to mind, heart to heart, where lips are dumb.
The Arts need no translation; they speak the universal mother tongue.
Centuries do not age them, custom does not stale them, boundaries do not exist for them.
Their message is for every country, every tongue.

Annie Besant

Art elevates. It gives strength and clarity of vision. It connects three levels of human existence (physiological, psychological and spiritual), harmonizes and balances them. In dance, rhythm and melody, space and movement, inner feelings and emotions (bhava) and emotional flavor created (rasa) are connected and perfectly tuned. Which is perfect, which is beautiful, which brings harmony and happiness is the art. Art is eternal ode to life. Art is the “voice of life” itself.

Purpose of dance

What is the meaning and purpose of dance? What is the function of the Art in our society?

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Classification of Nayika-s and Nayaka-s

Classification of heroines (Nayika) is given always relating to her hero (Nayaka).

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16th-Jul-2011 09:54 am - Abhinaya by Kalanidhi Narayanan

Abhinaya by Kalanidhi Narayanan

Abhinaya being interpretation of lyrics with help of hand gestures and facial expression, is more of less similar in all dance styles. Some styles are more dramatic and exaggerated, more histrionic, while others favor a subtle approach. In Bharatanatya stress is on clarity and subtlety. It is an art form based on suggestion and hence over-dramatization must be avoided at all costs.

Abhinaya can be expressed in two different ways: stylistic (Natya dharmi) and naturalistic (Loka dharmi). It would be appropriate to use both the styles in a balanced proportion as Natya dharmi gives clarity while Loka dharmi gives one a flavor of the actual experience.

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15th-Jul-2011 09:38 pm - Reminiscences of S Sharada Teacher

S Sharada - Advice from a veteran

Spirituality of Bharatanatyam

Essentially all Indians, however modern, have deep within them a spiritual streak, though quite often they are ashamed to exhibit it. This façade should be broken. The spiritual aspect of art, if emphasized, would help in transforming skeptical attitudes seen today. If youngsters are taught to understand Bharatanatyam and to use the art as it was meant to be, then they would find themselves changing in their day to day life as well.

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14th-Jul-2011 08:39 pm - S Sharada Teacher about Dance-dramas

S Sharada Teacher about Dance-dramas

A dance-drama should not exceed two hours. While presenting a dance-drama, care should be taken to select an inspiring theme. Only those parts which are full of rasa should be elaborated, the other parts should be used as links. The sloka-s should be selected and the number f players, major and minor, determined. The number of characters should be kept to a minimum; there is no need to fill the stage with characters. In certain dance-dramas, the patra pravesam (entrance of the character) is the description of the character. For a major character, the entry should be slow, for a moderate character medium and for the minor character, fast. During the patra pravesam, if other characters are on stage, they could depict the idea of the new entrant through abhinaya. This should be done without distracting attention from the main entrant.

The dance-drama should come to a close with Nritta and all participants should be present on stage for the mangalam. From the point of view of performance and presentation in a dance-drama , there are no minor characters and major characters. Everyone of the dancers on the stage is expected t be absorbed in the presentation and communicate through abhinaya the idea being enacted. When artists support each other and present the best, it is called rangam, and it is exalted. This shows the unity among artists.

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14th-Jul-2011 08:15 pm - Bharatanatyam Margam

Bharatanatyam Margam


The word ‘Alarippu’ means ‘blooming’ (root ‘alaru’ may be found in telugu, tamil and other Dravidian languages). Alarippu is short invocatory Nritta item. It’s meaning is paying obeisance or salutation to God, guru and audience. It opens performance and also opens dancer’s body – limbs are warmed up by simple movements, mind is focused by precise rhythm and emotions are activated by harmony and beauty of traditional choreography and inner joy of dance, so dear to each dancer.

Alarippu can be performed in different thalas and jatis, traditional alarrippu-s are rupaka, misra chapu and chaturasra eka thalam alarippu.

S Sharada Teacher explained Alarippu as follows:

'The Alarippu movements begin with the eyes and neck and move progressively downwards. This is essencially a dance dedicating each part of the body before commencing the actual program. Alarippu conveys happyness. 'Nanadanti anena devata - iti naandi.' That which makes the deva-s happy is naandi. Hence the Alarippu is like the naandi sloka.Hence the Alarippu is like the naandi sloka. Since this is dedicatory dance, it has to be simple, setting the stage for the more complicated dance to follow.'

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14th-Jul-2011 06:56 pm - Kautuvam

Kautuvam is devotional music form, a song in praise of a deity. This is sacred item intended to worship and pacify Gods through music and dance. There Kautuvams in praise of Gods (Subramanya, Ganapathi), kautuvams in praise of murthis (Mahalingam or Nataraja), or kautuvams in praise of local deities and saints – Thiruvangadu goddess, Swami of Thiravidai madurur.

Kautuvam is mentioned as part of Agamaragam (16 types of dance) in Pancha Marabu. It was in vogue in 16th cent AD. Up to first half of 20th cent Kautuvams were performed by Devadasis as regular part of temple rituals. South temples were constructed according specifications laid down in Agamas which include location of the temple, its measurements, iconography, rituals of worship including music and dance as offerings performed during pujas and festivals.
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14th-Jul-2011 04:02 pm - Ula

Ula is a literary work based on the theme of temple festival procession accompanied by folk songs and dance. The oldest Ula is Tikukaiyaya Nana Ula by Ceraman Perumal Nayanar (9 cent AD). It is also known as Ati Ula (the first Ula).

Ula-s were written on kings as representations of the Gods. Ula-s were composed up to 18 cent AD. In 19-20 cent Ula-s lost their importance.

Along with Kuravanji, Ula-s were successfully staged and performed as part of temple festivals.

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Evolutionary theories of emotions

Emotions are adaptive mechanisms of perception and reaction. Emotions appear to serve important functions, which has lead many to think that the emotions have been shaped by natural selection to deal with certain problems and challenges that organisms regularly encounter.

Evolutionary theories that claim that the emotions are adaptations that occurred in early hominids usually claim that the emotions have been selected to deal with problems that arose because of the social environment in which these organisms lived.
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10th-Jul-2011 05:48 pm - Some typology...
Principle of habit and safety
There are people who seeks comfort and happy rest, they resist changes, avoid risky situations. They are able to enjoy routine, as routine makes them feel safe. They need strict limits. They experience the limits and definite rules as firm ground, as guarantee of stability. They are afraid of too strong emotions, but very sensitive t sympathy. They are dependent on their habits and environment.
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9th-Jul-2011 08:16 pm - Psychological Distance
There is strong psychological connection between physical space, thought and emotion. This phenomenon is called “psychological distance.” We have all had the sensation of being “too close” to a situation, needing to “get away” and “putting some distance” between ourselves and others. Our sense of emotional connectedness (or lack of it) is tightly entangled with our perception of patterns in space.

Space and distance and the arrangement of objects can affect our emotions and our sense of well-being. An ordered, open space affects people’s emotions differently than a tighter, more closed-in environment does.

Lawrence E. Williams and John A. Bargh ran a series of experiments. They wanted to see if a sense of psychological distance or freedom might mute emotional discomfort, and that result is exactly what they found. The volunteers who had been primed for spaciousness were less discomfited by the embarrassing experience; they found it much more enjoyable than did those who had a more pinched perception of the world.

Williams and Bargh believe this tendency has to do with the brain’s deep-wired connection between distance and safety, a habit of mind that probably evolved to help our hominid forebears survive in precarious conditions.

This tendency is unconscious, working apart from awareness: the spatial distance between two arbitrary objects is apparently powerful enough to activate an abstract symbol of distance and safety in the brain, which in turn is powerful enough to shape our responses to the world.
8th-Jul-2011 11:14 am - Place of dance
After reading about five landscapes, I was thing about place of dance.

What is the place of dance in life? Where the dance happens? Where the dance lives?

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8th-Jul-2011 11:11 am - Five Landscapes of Love
Sangam vision of emotional life (Smile of Murugan by Kamil Zvelebil)

The entire subject-matter of poetry may be divided into two main genres – akam or akapporul, and puram or purapporul.

akam the meaning given are “inside, house, place, agricultural tract, breast, mind”, it occurs in all south Dravidian languages + Tulu and Telugu. This in itself should be rather relevant. In the cultural and literary spheres, it also means “inner life”, “private life” and, more specifically, “All aspects of love”, i.e. premarital, marital and extramarital love.

puram is “outside, exterior, that, which is foreign”, again, the conceit occurs in all south Dravidian languages + Tulu and Telugu. In reference to literature it means “outward life, public life, political life” and more specifically “heroism, war”

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7th-Jul-2011 12:46 pm - Koothanool

Koothanool (கூத்தநூல்) is an ancient treatise on the art of dance. This is unique copious and all comprehensive treatise on three-fold arts of dance, music and drama.

The author of this book is Sathanar (Koothanoor Semboot Sayan Sathan) of Koothanoor. He is said to be a contemporary of Tholkappiyar (who authored grammar for all three sectors - Literature, music and dance) and a disciple of Sage Agathiyar.

It is said that Agathiyar learned Tamil from the Lord Siva. He had 12 disciples, two of them are Sathanar and Tholkappiyar.

Sathanar was born in Koothanoor, Kumaraiyinthurai (Kanyakumari), the part of Pandya Kingdom. He had evidently traveled far and wide and had rendered in the form of sutra not only the indigenous dance system of Tamil Nadu including ancient Natya but also known system of dance prevalent in the regions surrounding Tamil Nadu.

In appreciation of this service to the art of dance he was extolled as a "Natya Brahma”, a supreme creator of dance or “Nanmuga koothan” or “Koothai pathaipol nanmuga koothan” (creator of dance, Brahma).

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6th-Jul-2011 10:36 pm - Rasa theory in Natya Shastra
Theory of Rasa described in Chapters VI and VII of Natya Shastra

The theory of Rasa-Bhava establishes a relationship between the performer and the spectator. The model spectator is a Sahrdaya, someone ‘who empathizes with the author.’ Since the success of a performance is measured by whether or not the audience has a specific experience (rasa), the spectator becomes a vital participant in the play.

Bharata calls human soul as Bhava-Jagat (the world of emotions). Bharata and later authors explain how the Art universalizes emotions making them an instrument of appeal to the spectators. They say that the actor acts as bearer, media and connector of emotions of the character. By conveying emotions the actor step by step opens inner Bhava-Jagat of the character, creates special emotional atmosphere, which can be felt and relished. The actor introduces and involves the spectators into this emotional atmosphere. Thus, emotions of the character are spread through the actor to spectators, who share them collectively, as a group, by relishing the Rasa. Thus emotions are embodied and translated from one person to many.

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4th-Jul-2011 10:52 am - Emotinos
Emotions as a nexus between subjective and objective reality

Human emotions are innumerable, multidimensional, have many shades and nuances. Emotions are the agents between intrinsic psychological states hidden inside. They connect and transfer inner phenomena through physiological reactions, mimics, gesticulation, poses, movements, words, modulation of voice, etc.

Vice versa, they help to perceive reality. As mirror reflects the structure of visible world, emotions are reflections of current situation in this world “as I feel it”. We assimilate this world and the world assimilates back our reactions. We life in space and create inner space to mirror outer reality.

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4th-Jul-2011 10:29 am - Some poetry...
I wonder what life is...

linking everything together
or leaving things apart as they are...
vast as space itself
eternal as time is...

year by year
over and ever again
unbreakable cycle of life runs...
2nd-Jul-2011 10:37 pm - Terror
Fear... Terror... Escape from yourself ... Inner grief

Fear is … hidden terror (Martin Heidegger, Existence and time)

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2nd-Jul-2011 09:51 pm - Negative complex
Negative complexes, exaggerated ambitions and conflict behavior as mechanisms of compensation

Core of negative complex is like a black hole which absorbs and traps forever every spark of light. Formative core of negative complex may appear after some serious psychological trauma related to social interaction. Negative complex splits personality, destructs inner balance. It causes serious violation of social interactions and relationships.

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1st-Jul-2011 10:52 pm - Savitri
Legend of Savitri (Mahabharata)

The King of Madras, Ashvapati, had no children. He performed many penances and observed rigid vows to Goddess Savitri. One day Savitri came out of fire and told him that soon he would get daughter. In due time the child was born and was given with the name of Savitri.

The girl was of shining beauty, like a goddess. In due time the father asked her to choose a husband. She went to many ashrams and returned to palace. In presence of Narada, she told her father that she have chosen Satyavan, the only son of Dyumatsena, blind king in exile. Narada warned her that after exactly one year Satyavan's soul will leave his body, but Savitri was determined.
She said: 'The death can fall but once; a daughter can be given away but once; and once only can a person say, I give away! I have, for once, selected my husband. Twice I shall not select.'

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1st-Jul-2011 10:46 pm - Bhakti
Bhakti movement in Tamilnadu

Political context

The Tamizh land was ruled by Kalabras who spoke Pali and Parakrit and has Sanskrit for administrative purpose. They were staunch followers of Buddhism and Jainism. Tamizh language was neglected and all tamils were cast out. Music and dance was shunned in society since they were thought of being capable of kindling lesser instincts [1].
Pallava dynasty of Kanchipuram

Pallavas came to rule the Tamizh land after the Kalabras in second half of the 5th century AD. Originally followers of Jainism, but from the time of Mahendran they converted to Saivism [1].

Mahendravarman I (7 cen AD) was the famous ruler, established stability in his land. He was great patron of arts and architecture (rock-cut temples of Mahabalipuram). Buddhism and Jainism were predominant religions in Mahendravarman’s kingdom.

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30th-Jun-2011 10:01 pm - Chidambaram
Nataraja Temple (Chidambaram)

Town of Chidambaram is located about 160 km south from Chennai, in the South Arcot district. The temple itself is located in the center of the town. Total area of the temple is about 51 (according to [1] – 55) acres. There are four prakaras, four gopurams about 135 m high.

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28th-Jun-2011 11:48 am - Nataraja
From symbolic Lingam to dancing Nataraja

Sculpture can be of two types: round sculpture & relief sculpture. Further on, round sculpture can be made in wood, clay or ceramic, stone (granite, marble, sandstone, etc) or metal (bronze, iron, still, silver, gold, etc.) To avoid complexity, let us concentrate on bronze or stone round sculptures in this paper.

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28th-Jun-2011 10:13 am - Kumarasambhavam
Kumarasambhavam Dance Drama

In the fourth century, or earlier, King Vikramaditya gathered to his court the navaratna or nine jewels of Indian culture. Pre-eminent among these was Kalidasa, the Sanskrit poet and dramatist. His creative genius made him greatest writer in Sanskrit and one of the world's literary immortals.

Kalidasa’s poem "Kumara Sambhavam” expresses ideas that the rishis of ancient India evolved as to the principles underlying cosmic and human life. These ideas are now regarded as the loftiest and most profound in the history of the human mind. In the India of Kalidasa, they were natural to high and low, they influenced the thoughts and action of not only the cultured strata of society but also of the so-called lower classes to whom devotion to the Powers behind life meant everything.

In "Kumara Sambhavam”, Kalidasa gives an account of the circumstances that made the creation (sambhavam) of Kumara an urgent necessity in order to save the three worlds (material, mental, spiritual) from the wicked attentions of a demon on whom Brahma, the Creator, had conferred powers which the demon, Taraka, turned to other purposes then those intended.
Here is obviously a reflection of the universal quarrel between good and evil, light and darkness, positive and negative, that are the subject of "savior myths" from time immemorial. The common origin is the creative life of the universe. The “evil deeds” of the demon Taraka came out of the powers bestowed on him by Brahma. The “good deeds” that Goddess Parvati (called also Sati and Uma) was to perform in creating Kumara to overcome Taraka, came also out of the mind of Brahma. Evil could not affect goodness, good could not react to evil, unless behind their external mayavic (“illusory”) differences there was a co-coordinating unity.

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28th-Jun-2011 09:48 am - Devadasi
"The Sadir was performed by Devadasis in temples, places and the houses of the people in general on all auspicious occasions... Through in later days Sadir unfortunately developed sensual characteristics, which almost brought about extinction of the art, it must also be remembered that the Devadasis kept up both the technique and the spirit of the dance tradition. They were dedicated to the temples and this was no mere formality but a real dedication, for when they danced during the temple festivals or rituals, they were examples of pure devotion. The joy of dancing and offering their art at the altar of the Supreme was great and had no ulterior motive."
Rukmini Devi Arundale

Devadasi system

Devadasi (Sanskrit) or Devaradiyal (Tamil) means ‘servant of God’, dancing girl dedicated to the service of God in a temple. This custom was practiced since the Sangam age and reached great popularity in medieval period (600 – 1800 AD).

Devadasi system is rooted in universal fertility cult. In India this cult manifests itself in Siva temples where fertility is merged with Tantra (union of Sun and Moon, Linga and Yoni, female and male principles).

According to Puranas devadasi are of celestial origin (for example, description of Indra’s court in Matsya Purana). Tamil record of Sankaranayinar Koil mentions three Tamil kings who went to court of Indra to ask for drought relief. Pandya’s presence was not noticed. He was irritated and came back after taking away four apsaras and their sons.

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28th-Jun-2011 08:58 am - Messenger Poems
Tutu Poetry - Messenger poems in Indian Literature

Tutu (or duta in Sanskrit) means “message”. Tutu (or Sandesha in Sanskrit) is also the genre of poetry when the message is sent through uyartinai (class of superior beings) or akrinai (class of inferior beings) from lady in love to her lover or vice versa.

According to Kamil Zvelebil (8), tutu is a poem defined schematically and formally as a genre in Kalivenpa meter which purports to be a message of love sent though a companion to effect reconciliation between the lovers.

In Tholkappiyam it is mentioned that the messages can be sent though heroine’s confidant, mother, Brahmin, hero’s friend, minstrel, bardess, youngsters, guest, actor/dancer or danseuse/actress, noble and seers. There are ten types of objects which could carry the message, such as swan, peacock, parrot, lady’s maid, bush myna, cloud, cuckoo, heart, wind and bee.
Later on, in medieval period the poets employed such kind of media as money, Tamil language, South wind (tendral), conversation, love, paddy, tobacco, pieces of dress, crow, deer, donkey, flowers, etc.

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28th-Jun-2011 08:22 am - Kuravanji Dance Dramas
Kuravanji dance Dramas

According to (1), a play written in verse form is known as Kuravanji. The term "Kuravanji" refers to a woman born in "kuravar" (gypsy) family. In Kuravanji dramas, the Kurati woman plays an important role as a soothsayer. The main theme of Kuravanji is human love towards God and other human.

The gripping interest in the play is maintained by the very composition of the play itself. Apart from the theme, the rich metrical variations heighten the interest in the play. Kuavanji is a variety of smaller prabhandha that developed in medieval period (about 17 cent AD) in Tamil literature. It is one of 96 prabhandha-s and belongs to Natakatamizh. Such plays as "Kuttrala Kuravanji” and “Azhagar Kuravanji” are considered as being of great literary value.

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27th-Jun-2011 05:36 pm - Aham Poetry

Представление о любви в древней тамильской поэзии

                В первых веках нашей эры на самом юге индийского полуострова существовала высокоразвитая цивилизация так называемого"дравидийского" происхождения.

Весьма развитым языком дравидийской группы является тамильский.

Это было время расцвета феодальных княжеств, время политического и экономического спокойствия и процветания.

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Meenakshi Vijayam

history of Rukmini Devi dance drama (staged in December 1977) told by S Sarada Teacher

When Rukmini Devi invited KC Thyagarajan to provide the music composition, he readily agreed and took the chosen songs from Mazhavapuri Subramanya Bharati’s Tiruvilaiyadal Puranam. When she started the dance composition she found that many of the music compositions had to be changed to suit the requirements of dance abhinaya. Thyagarajan graciously allowed us to change his compositions in order to give more scope for expressions of bhava, etc.
Thuraiyur Rajagopala Sarma modified some songs and changed the set music of some and composed ten songs. Seetherama Sarma provided the sollukattu swaras for the songs. As and when additions had to be made, or changes done, he composed many songs according to Rukmini Devi’s direction.

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1st-Mar-2011 07:59 pm - Jagato Dharana
What can I say about my life? Those were the worst days, those were the best days.
Today I watched Kalanidhi Mami’s class. She taught my friend Jagato Dharana. She lives in casual well-off apartment in Shastri Nagar, very neat and even with elevator. She is very old now, 82 y.o. She is in traditional cotton sari, red with green border. She is skinny. She is sitting on comfortable chair, very quiet, without unnecessary words.
When she starts showing abhinaya her face as if opens, like a flower. Her eyes start seeing things created by her imagination, as if the world round is suddenly filled with new life, new inhabitants, things and sounds. She looks on her Krishna and feeling of his presence is unmistakably real.
Her gestures are as minimal as her explanations. Even choreography of Jagato Dharana is extremely simple, near illustrative. But! While sitting there, near by my friend Manjula, Mami’s student, I got several drastically important ideas which I would like to share.
Fist of all, Krishna is not just a God or Lord, whatever. There is certain world-view which creates Krishna as embodiment of main its ideas.
In Jagato Dharana Yashoda addresses kid-Krishna as the Lord of the Universe, but at the same time teases him by offering piece of butter and drawing it back, in tree steps, so Krishna cannot catch it.
He is great creator, sleeping in yoga-nidra, and she caresses him and puts on tiny cloths and plays hide-and-seek with him.
He all-pervading, but she locks him in, he bangs the door but cannot open it and starts crying.
He is all-mighty, but she screens him from Gopi-s who come to complain about his pranks and protects him by consoling their indignant protests.
Only mother is able to understand how such incompatible features can meet in her only child. Only mother can believe that it is possible for her son to be as he is, the Lord and baby at the same time. He is incomparable. He symbolizes infinity of the Universe, where opposites meet and exist in eternal struggle and balance. He is beyond cause and effect.
He is like wing beat of a butterfly changing the whole history of the Universe.
Only mother is able to feel how tiny embryo growths inside the womb, comes into being as a baby and becomes a man, then powerful king and even the Lord (as in case of Krishna).
Thus, Krishna, so dear to each and every Indian heart, is not only embodiment of hope or parental instincts or heritage of cowherd cult of child-god. He is certain world-view, reflecting eternity and connectivity of this Universe on each and every level.
5th-Nov-2010 08:11 pm - Как в тему, господа!

Луна раскинула лучи в сапфирном небе

И океаном разлилась молочным;

Средь шумных улиц криками толпы

Начало праздника приветствует селенье;

Лес полон неумолчного гуденья

Пчел, ищущих подруг по зарослям цветочным, —

А я в тоске, одна, спадают украшенья.

Ночь долгую сомкнуть не в силах глаз:

Со мною ли устроил мир сраженье,

Иль с миром я — душой, уставшей от мученья?

(НАТТРИНЕЙ 348, "Стихи на пальмовых листьях" в переводе Анатолия Наймана)

2nd-Nov-2010 09:47 pm - Ode to the dance
Ode to the dance

I've fallen in love with dance! Suddenly I’ve realized it to utmost extent.

It was many years ago when I saw it first time. I loved to watch these gentle movements. My heart was stirred by these new sophisticated patterns, filling space with bright emotions.

Then I tried to study this strange form of dance. And my body loved to do it!

It was the time of first infatuation, simple and without much understanding. I didn't realize significance of art. I played and enjoyed my new ardor.

I studied and worked, changed fields of my studies and research, changed employers. Dance was the only constant thing like the thread hidden under the beads of days, months and years and holding the whole necklace together.

Oh, so much problems I had because of dance! First of all, when we take up such non-standard activity, we are blamed for unreasonable eccentricity and automatically are put on the border between sane and crazy folks. But this was not the worst, at least as psychologist I understand how relative all those borders are. Sidelong glances teach humility.

Step by step dance became essential part of my life. Such things we do not notice, but realize their significance in crucial moments when important decision should be made or some misfortune happens.

It’s very difficult to surrender the whole life to fragile, unpractical idea such as the art is. It requires awesome power or at least a lack of reason and a lot of frivolity.

Whatever, after the fights and speculations are other and inevitable choices are made, some quiet period of mutual co-existence comes. The petals of first infatuation have gone with the winds of time, and the thorns of difficulties are all round. The true nature of the art is sacrifice, this is true. Like a camel walks through desert, without much hope for better, but having some faith in miracle at least.

One day this slavery makes you sad, another day - even mad. So you go on, falling down in depression, rising again and walking on, falling again and so on.

But one day sun rises. Suddenly I realized that I am ready to dance again, on completely new level, and I do have something new to tell and to express.

Another day I realized that I am in love again, with the same old dude, who's always round but whom I see now as if anew. This time I can call love as love, without any hesitation. It's not infatuation or likeness now, because real love comes from deep understanding and knowledge. We are fatigued by perfections, but love for deficiencies.

And tomorrow we have main exam… third year… varnam… Chalame…

Suddenly such idealistic feelings rose out of some inner depths ... irritating my rational and skeptical consciousness.

Strange life is, surprisingly strange.

1st-Sep-2010 07:42 pm - Aham poetry
Никак не могу смириться с повальным стремлением в современном танце запихать все в "бхакти, от греха подальше", в прямом и переносном смысле этого слова. Не понимаю я этот бхакти. Все-таки, человеку выросшему в атеистическом режиме это сложно. Зато поэзия предшествовавшей движению бхакти эпохи Сангам, более чувственная и человечна, мне очень даже понятна.
Комментарии излишни - даже в переводе, просто на уровне смысла и метафор:

People say, "You have to bear it."
Don't they know what passion is like,
or is it that they are so strong?
As for me, if I do not see my lover
grief drowns my heart,
and like a steak of foam in high waters
dashen on the rocks
little by little I ebb
and become nothing.

(Kuruntohai, 290)

а вот уже более близкий к нашему времени, известный падам Sarangapani in Sahana ragam, также написанный в духе Aham:

My husband beckons me,
I must go, my beloved,
Forget you, I never shall.
Beautiful, benevolent Venugopala,
When I was an unknowing child
He tied a pottu around my neck.

Like a lotus that blooms at sunrise
The distance between us matters not.
I place my devoution at your feet.
6th-May-2010 11:55 am - Bharatanatyam
A programme of Bharatanatyam is apt to be characterized by energy, speed, exuberance and abandon. It is rich with emotional content, complemented by succession upon succession of body pattern of marked clarity and sculptural precision. It is a treat to the mind and the heart; it is a synthesis of the intellectual and emotional content; it has mathematical accuracy; it is a blend of the dance pure and the dance emotional.

Отличительные особенности программы Бхаратанатьям – энергичность, скорость, изобилие и импульсивность. Бхаратанатьям - это богатое эмоциональное содержание, переплетенное связками движений удивительной чистоты и скульптурной точности. Это наслаждение для разума и сердца, синтез интеллектуального и эмоционального смыслов. Бхаратанатьям наделен математической точностью. Бхаратанатьям – это гармония танца чистого и танца эмоционального.
14th-Nov-2009 07:53 pm - Шанта Дхананджаян
Шанта Дхананджаян

Сложно вкладывать в слова некоторые вещи. Сегодня мы были на программе Сера и Шанты Дхананджаян. Небольшая, компактная программа, из разряда очередных, ничего особенного. Сер с ученицей станцевали нритьянджали, потом ученица (Лата), станцевала варнам. После варнама в зале, как обычно, началось движение - начался отток ценителей искусства в буфет (восемь вечера – время ужина, это святое). Шанта Ака всю программу сидела на наттувангаме, в обычном сари, без макияжа, только особенные танцевальные цветы в прическе. После варнама она запела падам – голос у нее отличный, поет она волшебно. Пропела паллави, развернулась и как-то мгновенно исчезла со своего места. За наттувангам села ученица.

Шанта Ака вышла на сцену – как она в жизни есть, так и вышла. Просто, естественно, неторопливо, затнув паллю за пояс – но волшебно. Ее движения настолько точны, настолько органичны, что сложно понять – есть ли в танце вообще хореография. Они настолько изящны, что глаза забывают моргать. Ее лицо, глаза – как будто старый друг пришел, очень близко, только к тебе.
Падам про очередную наику, которая страдает по Кришне и гонит подружку передать ему послание. И вот что было необычно в ее абхинае кроме вопиющего совершенства техники и выражения, истинной красоты и грации, глубины, зрелости и силы чувства - ее как-бы было много. Трудно эту мысль выразить. Она была и наикой, показывала что та делает, что при этом творится в ее душе – полный, выразительный и органичный образ, нарисованный в три штриха - эксперт. Но при этом на сцене была и сама Шанта Ака, она как бы смотрела на саму себя (наику) со стороны (бредово, но это на уровне чувств). При этом сама-то Шанта Ака тоже состояла из нескольких частей - обычного своего я и какого-то очень высокого я, которое живет там, в небе, не тут. Это можно сравнить, как если бы мать уже в возрасте вспоминает, как она в молодости рассказывала в лицах подруге, что вытворила сегодня ее пятилетняя дочь. Очень странное, необычное ощущение. Удивление, восхищение, истинное наслаждение от созерцания совершенства, уважение и благодарность, желание развиваться и пытаться что-то сделать. Дай нам Бог так когда-нибудь танцевать!

Прямо и громко имею заявить – на земле есть искусство, более того, на земле есть совершенство! Великое актерское мастерство, тончайшая проработка образа, совершенное погружение, переживание, полное внутреннее слияние с ролью.

Есть вещи невыразимые словами. Поэтому на свете есть театр. Глубокие переживания, тончайшие оттенки чувств, многогранная сложность и противоречивость души живого существа, изменение, пробуждение, внутренний конфликт, буря эмоций, просто цунами!

Сияние внутреннего мира живого существа льется через глаза – это суть нетра абхинаи, искусства повествования с помощью одних лишь глаз.

К чему я все это пишу?

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4th-Aug-2009 06:19 pm - Бирджу Махарадж
Бирджу Махарадж

Сегодня мне довелось увидеть выступление самого Бирджу Махараджа и Сасвати Сен, в Калакшетре, в Кутамбалам.
Первое - я поняла, что про Катхак я только слышала, а вот видела его сегодня.
Второе – если сравнить танец с лотосом (забито, но тем не менее), то что есть зерно – мы не знаем, это сама идея. Что есть стебель – понятно, нритта, простая и стройная основа, физический проводник, на котором распускается бутон нритьи, внутри которого скрыта натья, дающая миру нектар и аромат. Лотос произрастает из чрева материи, качается на волнах музыки в такт ритмическому движению ветра. Как капли росы, сияют на его лепестках поэтические метафоры. Он устремляется вверх, открывая свое личико солнцу и наполняя весь мир ароматом новых, прекрасных, еще не описанных словами переживаний.
(не в тему: сие прекрасное сравнение пришло мне в голову во время очередной тат-адаву, перемежаемой бесконечными речами Мурти Сера, причем последний взбесил изрядно выведя меня из сей прекрасной медитации словами «пут ол форс ин ит, лайк ин армии!» - блин, я же танцевать собираюсь, а не народ убивать, в конце-то концов!)
Так вот. Все тончайшие детали этого лотоса не описать - неразличимые кончики лепестков, непостижимая стройность стебля и силуэта бутона, легкий наклон – как будто он прислушивается к шепоту ветра или всплеску воды, непредсказуемость игры света и тени на лепестках… Все это было сегодня на сцене – все, что нельзя нарисовать, рисуя лотос, что нельзя представить, думая о лотосе. То же верно в отношении Катхака – они показали росчерком, намеком, минутной вспышкой все невозможно совершенное, что есть в Катхаке.
Первое – на сцену вышел сам Бирджу Махарадж. За ним вышла сама Сасвати Сен.
Второе – ритм. Он показывал как можно изобразить тишину ночи, звуки волн, утреннюю перекличку птиц. Разговор двух людей – один все пытается что-то замутить, куда-то сходить, съездить - другому лень, он отвечает, что он устал, сил нету, рука болит.
Потом был очень интересный джугал бандхи. Он рассказал, что это дворцовая традиция, так раньше танцоры состязались за награду махараджи. Соллукатты (слоги) + голоса колокольчиков на ногах - это голос героини (наяки), ей отвечает табла - это герой (наяка). Она одевается, наряжается, украшает себя. Он смотрит на нее и передразнивает. Она как будто стремится убежать – он следует за ней. Она ускоряет шаг – он тоже, она бежит - он за ней. Он устал, просит ее притормозить. Она смеется и манит его к себе.
Он показывал ее мимику очень тонко - движением бровей, легкой усмешкой. За героя говорил только барабан – оба были абсолютно живые и присутствовали на сцене во все полноте.
(Лила Акка, как Тинкер Белл из Питера Пена, была сразу как-то везде - она вышла из правой двери рядом с правой кулисой с сумкой, потом вдруг выглянула из левой кулисы с шарфом, потом – из правой уже без шарфа, потом вдруг как-то появилась и села рядом с музыкантами слева. Транспортировалась и оказалась рядом с Сасвати Сен, видимо прося Маэстро о чем-то. Потом ее голова показалась среди детей…)
А Маэстро рассказывал, что Катхак исконно вышел из храма, причем, из небольших деревенских храмов, принадлежащих общине. До сих пор традиция храмовых спектаклей сохраняется в уттар прадеше, например.
Потом Сасвати Сен танцевала его собственную тхумри – про то, как Рада изображала Кришну. Ей удалось добиться небывалого сходства и обмануть всех пастушек. Когда появился настоящий Кришна, никто не мог сказать кто же их двоих настоящий. Тогда Кришна сказал: "Рада, единственное отличие между нами в том, что в моих глазах всегда только Рада, в твоих же - Кришна. Твои глаза выдают тебя. Ты не можешь убрать его оттуда.» Маэстро пел, Сасвати Сен – танцевала. Все замерли.
Потом он показал такую штуку, как Бха Батана - он сидел и пел, под аккомпанемент таблы, гармони и ситара, и показывал историю - санчари на тему Кандита Наика (героиня, которая ревнует и злится на своего возлюбленного, потому что видит на его лице и одежде признаки любовных похождений на стороне - пятна кумкума, лепестки жасмина, царапины и даже след поцелуя... Сначала он показал героиню, потом - самого героя, который попался и не знает что делать. Он пытается юлить - бесполезно, просит прощения - опять отказ. Молит о пощаде... клянется...
К сожалению, время поджимало (о, мерзкие устроители! Кто посмел толкать речи и поедать драгоценные минуты встречи с великим!!!).
Мораль: если планируете концерт Великого – забудьте о времени, выкиньте все часы и всех устроителей мероприятия за дверь. Единственная реальность – это искусство, ибо оно само творит реальность, отражает и преобразует ее, наделяет реальное дыханием и душой. В мире много такого, что мы не можем себе представить, а некоторые великие – не только могут это помыслить, но и показать, более того, так, чтобы и нам, дурням, было понятно.
Я поняла, что объяснить это человеку совершенно европейского склада ума это практически невозможно. Поэтому написала такое вот письмо с картинками.

Shringara - это сложное, многослойное понятие. В Индийской древней и средневековой литературе (южной и северной) это понятие используется для описания взаимоотношений людей. Точного эквивалента ни в русском, ни в английском языках нет, так как в западной культуре феномен, явление описывается с рациональной, а не эмоциональной точки зрения. Поэтому феномен любви и влюбленности описывается психологами, философами и даже писателями в научном ключе, рационально, с помощью логических операторов.

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6th-Mar-2009 12:33 pm - Dance drama Andal Charitram

I consider myself a very lucky person to have seen ‘Andal’ twice, in December, 2008 and February, 2009. I was struck by its sparkling perfection. While talking to my friends, I compared this level of perfection with the quality of a Swiss clock – all the details are balanced so exactly, that the clock performs its duty very easily and naturally. The same quality I saw in ‘Andal’. Music, choreograohy, costumes, stage arrangements, props, formations, the performance of each dancer were so exquisite, it was as if the drama was staged by Bharata Muni himself 2 500 years ago, and they have been performing it since then.

Jyolsana Teacher said us that ‘Andal’ was one of Rukmini Devi’s most favourite dance dramas. The firs Andal was Chinna Sarada Teacher.

While watching the drama the second time during February festival, I was thinking about Andal and how she perceived the world. I was trying to associate my soul with her character. I realized, that the age of 13/15-20/25 (depends upon culture and nation) is very distinct. This time people start thinking about what they are going to do in their lives, to what they are going to offer their lives, and to what extent they are ready to sacrifice themselves. At this age people are very close to higher levels of reality, as in olden age also. Unconsciously, they address their questions to God (whichever God they believe in). After watching ‘Andal’ I realized that this particular period of life is not only mere ‘choosing a profession’. Life is a priceless gift. In reality, our lives are the only thing we can give back to the Absolute, with love and gratitude.

I suppose this drama is about love and gratitude, the qualities from which life was created, which draws life forward, and which are the purpose of life itself. That is how I’ve felt Andal’s bhakti.

3rd-Oct-2008 03:44 am - Приядаршини Говинд

Сегодня, 2 октября, неожиданно получила от Наташи Бутырской СМС: будет программа Приядаршини. Несказанно образовалась, обежала и объэсемесила всех, кого можно – ура! Вечером идем в концерт!

Подруга Суприя подробно объяснила нам как ехать. Внутренний голос мне сказал – выходи пораньше, что-то тут мутно. Оказался прав, как всегда – автобус 23С завез нас не туда куда надо (Суприя, наверное, долго икала).

Ну, ничего. На свете есть рикши. Среди них попадаются (редко правда) знающие город индивиды. Короче, приехали мы за 40 минут до начала и заняли хорошие места.

Какой же это был удивительный концерт! Она – великий профессионал. Ее нритта не очень сложная, но все, что она делает, отличается великой четкостью и скульптурностью. Все положения тела выверены до миллиметра – она удивительно пропорциональна.

И, конечно, абхиная – это ее конек. В живом концерте она совершенно другая, чем на дисках (нет, я окончательно разуверилась в технике – не передает она самое важное – расам). Она излучает столько эмоций – при том, что мимика у нее достаточно сдержана и даже консервативна.

И еще – музыка! У нее настоящая золотая коллекция айтемов – человек понимает, что такое хорошая поэзия и музыка – это даже нам было понятно, не говоря о таких профи, как Наташа Бутырская. Музыка была чудесна.

В общем, могу сказать одно – снимаю шляпу перед истинным профессионализмом, красотой, изяществом и тонким вкусом. Это было бесподобно!

3rd-Oct-2008 03:35 am - Kalanidhi Mami

I must confess, I’m a fan of Smt. Kalanidhi Narayan. I have seen all DVD available about her abhinaya. Thus, seeing her in a life concert was the greatest pleasure for me. Like the Sun, she put into shade all other katcheri.

But still, Smt. Kalanidhi Mami showed us a real miracle of human feelings. Her third padam was about a husband returning home after a long absence. The heroine opens the door and suddenly sees him – at this moment the eyes of Smt. Kalanidhi Mami were like two projectors – so much light streamed out of them! She lighted the hall with them! The sudden burst of joy, making the heart stop and all limbs get paralyzed. Then she showed overwhelming excitement, her eyes were shining, her gestures were sudden, indistinct as if she could not speak a word, as if she wanted to say everything at once, but cannot conclude even simple phrase of welcome.

It took a minute, but I can write three-four pages more, so concentrated and impressive was her abhinaya. Her art is the quintessence of communication between human beings, from soul to soul, without uttering a word.

3rd-Oct-2008 03:33 am - Veena

The Veena was created by Gods and for Gods, when one listens to its sound, one forgets the place, time – everything, as if one is in the heart of the Universe, before the beginning or after the end of everything, beyond everything, but pervading everything, Such feelings arise at the sound of Veena.

3rd-Oct-2008 02:52 am - Страшная история!

Итак, я – богатырь!

Я работала в нете, видимо, что-то не то сделала, или вирус пришел какой- короче, система начала глючить. Да как не-подетски глючить! Ни одна прога на запускалась, даже панель управления незя было открыть. Ни проводник – ничего!

Короче, я была просто в отчаянии – мне на завтра перевод надо было сдавать с 10 (а времени час ночи). Причем, если навернулась система – это значит, что надо ехать в сервис центр (а это пол дня, так как это Индия). Меня охватил ужас и роковая тоска.

Десять раз перезапустила винды – не помогло. Зашла в БИОС – а толку? Я долго сидела вспоминала как загрузить винды в сайв моде – не помню, хоть убей. Справка не открывается… связи с внешним миром нет… кругом одни индусы-идиоты… Ледяной ужас подобрался к самому горлу… Моя соседка уже давно легла спать. В комнате кромешная темнота, только таинственно сияет синим светом мышка…

И тут я совершила невозможное. Я в очередной раз перезагрузила комп и моя рука сама (реально, в полной темноте! Я клавы не видела!) в состоянии магического транса нажала F8. Когда я увидела на экране меню с опциями выбора загрузки виндузы в сейф моде – я поняла, что на свете есть высшие силы.

И тут я сделала рывок и перешла на новый уровень интеллектуального развития. Я обнаружила, что в сейф моде все запускается, открыла справку, нашла опцию System Restore и сделала откат на неделю назад.

Система загрузилась. Ворд запустился! Система нашла модем! Интернет заработал!

Я сижу, по второму разу скачиваю свой файл для перевода и благодарю все высшие силы, которые просветлили мое сознание. Теперь я понимаю, что такое счастье. Я понимаю как ощущает себя олимпийский чемпион.

20th-Sep-2008 04:09 pm(no subject)

Самое первое упражнение, которое мы сделали в Калакшетре, - это приседания. И тут обнаружились страшные различия – мы в России, когда садимся вниз, ставим стопы на полупальцы. И думаем, что так и надо, ан нет – тамильцы славятся вниз на совершенно плоской стопе, у них даже в муруманди пятки почти прижаты к полу.

Подробное описание упражнений....Collapse )
8th-Aug-2008 09:54 am - Реки Индии

Смотрим серию програм под названием Реки Индии. Каждый исполнитель показывает программу посвященную одной реке. Гангу показывала Малавика Саруккай. Ето было чудесно - она не просто отличный исполнитель в плане Нритта (ее грация удивительна, позы отточены до микрона, птичья быстрота и легкость сочетаются в ней с мягкостью и плавностью реки). Ее абхиная настолько выразительна, глубока - можно сказать, что ее абхиная по сути своей очень философская.

В основном танце она показала три разных характера - сначала к Ганге приходят двое молодоженов, беззаботные, им все интересно, все удивительно, волшебно и весело. Потом она показала пожилую женщину, которая потеряла сына. Она жалуется Ганге, потому что болше у нее никого нет. Она говорит что горит в огне тоски и боли и просит Гангу помочь ей перейти на другую сторону - покинуть этот мир. Потом она показала брахмина, он приходит утром на свою ежедневную молитву - в его глазах спокойствие, он молча выполняет свои ритуалы и смотрит внутрь себя - в зеркало чистой атмы.

Брахмапутру показывал Шриджит Намбияр, он выпускник Калакшетры, аспирантуру закончил и преподавал там до предыдущего года.
Неплохая постановка, очень много новомодного - катхачные элементы, ассамские народные танцы и пр. Ну и все, в общем.

А вот потом была волшебная, солнечная девушка - Митхили Пракаш. Она удивитенная! Отличная Нритта, высочайшее мастерство и изящество плюс очень проникновенная, искренняя абхиная - она просто светилась! Ее река была Ямуна - она отдала зрителям столько любви, столько энергии! Мне она очень понравилась!

Еше у нас параллельно идет музыкальный фестиваль. Первые два дня проводились в Калакшетре. Самое яркое событие, на фоне которого меркнет все и вся - Шримати Каланидхи Нараян. Она показала 5-6 джавали и падамов, вперемежку. Какое она чудо! Волшебница. На сцене она сбрасывает 20 лет. Мне понравился один падам где героиня встречает мужа после долгой разлуки - она открывает дверь и вдруг видит его ... Боже мои, сначала ее удивительная улыбка осветила лицо, потом как лучом прожектора - весь зал! "Смотрю не могу насмотреться" - имено так она смотрела на него. Только глаза, только глаза - волшебная улыбка и глаза полные счастья, в которое не верится. Она не может вымолвить не слова - просто вбирает его в себя глазами.

Это толко один из волшебных моментов ее абхинаи. Еше был один падам - бхакти-шрингара. Героиня говорит "как прекрасно любить бога - он всегда рядом, везде-везде я вижу его, он всегда в моем сердце и перед моими глазами" - и такой у нее был при етом взгляд - и внутрь и наружу одновременно, ее глаза были как зеркало - так хотелось заглянуть в них поближе - в них будто сверкало отражение ее божественного возлюбленного.

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