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Мне очень понравился балет «Баядерка». Адажио с корзинкой Никии в исполнении Ольги Моисеевой (еще в 50-е годы) и Ульяны Лопаткиной (2009 год, например) однозначно утвердили меня в моем мнении. Поэтому я решила выяснить историю написания либретто.

«Баядерка» была поставлена Петипа в 1877 году, в Московском Большом театре. В то время балеты часто ставились в качестве бенефисов для знаменитых балерин. «Баядерку» Петипа создал для Елены Вязем, которая станцевала первую Никию. Партию Солора исполнил сам Лев Иванов (будущий знаменитый балетмейстер).

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14th-Dec-2013 05:10 pm - вдруг
торкнуло: самая ужасная беда интеллектуалов, получивших мощное нетривиальное образование, в том, что совершенно теряется способность видеть тривиальные решения.
х2+х4=0 решается не только в комплексных числах.
есть еще НООООООООООЛЬ
и нормальный людь, найдя самое простое решение - дальше уже не парится.
а интеллектуала, которого по определению сначала ведет в комплексность,
СЧИТАЕТ ПОЛНЫМ ИДИОТОМ.
и в чем-то он прав.
потому что, если построить обычный график - НИКАКОГО ДРУГОГО РЕШЕНИЯ, кроме нуля, НА НЕМ НЕ ВИДНО!
ох.
а как объяснить то, чего не видно?
3rd-Oct-2013 07:52 pm - доверие
потеря доверия - это как крах на бирже. все вроде на месте, но самое главное - ценность, обрушилась.
так и в жизни. теряется доверие - все теряет ценность, слова, действия, улыбки... 
как звучит Солнце:

мелодия пульсара (ритм - поразительно!):

мелодия планет и лун солнечной системы (поразительно, какие они все разные):

Земля (невероятно):

Записи Вояджера (свободные радиоволны, транслированные в звуковой поток - это просто вершина развития эмбиент):
3rd-Oct-2013 12:53 am - ...
Дойти до конца- не самое сложное. Самое сложное - поставить точку.
и пойти дальше 
26th-Sep-2013 06:47 pm - учение
первое образование я получала в детском возрасте - совершенно пассивно, не думая. я бы назвала это "безучастное выучивание".
я честно ходила на семинары, сдавала все работы, "выучивала" билеты (тут я не имею ввиду зубрежку, а скорее именно "безучастное" выучивание, когда пытаешься ну хоть как-то понять с одной целью - ЗАПОМНИТЬ, чтобы вывести на экзамене).
я не вкладывала никакой инициативы и творчества в процесс.
Читать про то, что случилось потом...Collapse )
"If string theory is right, the microscopic fabric of our universe is a richly interwined multidimensional labyrinth within which the strings of the universe endlessly twist and vibrate, rhythmically beating out the laws of the cosmos."

"Just as the strings on a violin or on a piano have resonant frequencies at which they prefer to vibrate - patterns that our ears sense as various musical notes and their higher harmonics - the same holds true for the loops of string theory. But we will see that rather then producing musical notes, each of the preferred patterns of vibration of a string in a strong theory appears as a particle whose mass and force charges are determined by the string oscillatory pattern. The electron is a string vibrating one way, the up-quark is a string vibrating another way, and so on.
Far from being a collection of chaotic experimental facts, particle properties in string theory are the manifestation of one and the same physical feature: the resonant patterns of vibration - the music, so to speak - of fundamental loops of string. The same idea applies to the forces of nature as well. We will see that force particles are also associated with particular patterns of string vibration and hence verything, all matter and all forces, is unified under the same rubric of microscopic string oscillations - the "notes" that strings can play."

(The Elegant Universe by Brian Greene, Prof. of Phys&Maths, Columbia University)
22nd-Sep-2013 06:49 pm - Правополушарное
Сегодня я задумалась о цветах. Дарение цветка - это современный ритуал вежливости, направленной на достижение очень различных целей. Сначала я подумала, что губить растения ради минутного ритуала - крайне эгоистично. Искусственные цветочки более практичны и удобны в хранении.
Читать дальше...Collapse )
27th-Mar-2013 07:09 pm - Папа
У папы была интересная черта - не помню, чтобы он хотя бы раз высказал свое суждение о характере или даже поведении какого-то человека (включая как знакомых, так и публичные фигуры - типа актеров или политиков). Хотя помню многочисленные замечания в отношении моего и моей сестры поведения... но, опять же, не характера.

Папа был не очень разговорчив, скорее сдержан и ироничен. Свое мнение он высказывал охотно в отношении политики, профессиональных вопросов, прочитанных книг (он любил фантастику). Но никогда - о людях.

Папа любил читать. Он был спокойным человеком. Покой, порядок, режим и дисциплина - вот четыре слона его жизни, простой и очень устойчивой. Он больше всего боялся быть назойливым, раздражать и зря беспокоить людей - он считал это недопустимым, совершенно незаконным вторжение в пространство чужой, частной жизни.

Папа любил общество и с удовольством сопровождал мою крайне общительную и социально активную маман на различные торжества. Папа был гурманом. :0)) Он прекрасно готовил и обожал принимать гостей дома (правда, предпочитал узкий круг семьи и близких знакомых). Еще он очень любил сладкое и попить чайку вечером.

Папа очень любил природу - за ее порядок, молчание и красоту. Это была самая (как я только сейчас понимаю) основная его черта. С детства мы куда-то ходили - в лес, на речку, за город. Папа постоянно отыскивал какие-то новые озера, особые полянки с рыжиками, горки для спуска на лыжах или тихий пансионат, где готовят необдыкновенно вкусные чебуреки для лыжников. Он отлично знал все наши окрестности, каждый остров на водохранилище, каждую речку, все возможные виды лесов и что и где растут в какое время года. Он не мог словами выразить все это - он просто брал нас с собой и показывал, как выглядит туман над водой перед восходом, какая на самом деле роса холодная, как тихо в лесу в октябре, какая чистая вода в черных речках (вода фильтруется торфянниками и становится необыкновенно прозрачной), как облака отражаются в озере... какие огромные волны в шторм... как молнии змеятся по всему горизонту, прямо кольцом, когда находишься в центре грозы на озере... какие огромные болота и что такое настоящая трясина... что такое зыбучие пески... как в 30-х затопили огромную площадь (когда постороили водохранилище) и целые города оказались под водой, и как до сих пор башенки церкви поднимаются над озером...

С одной стороны, революция и все последующие подвижки были объективно необходимы, да. Жаль только, что земля осталась без таких людей, как мой папа, которые любили и защищали интересы самой земли. В своем имении, такие люди, как папа, жили веками. Ценили общество (и да, боялись общественного мнения, это совершенно определенно), но никогда не позволяли обижать "свою" землю. Симпатия и готовность служить "нашей" земле, даже наперекор экономическим соображениям - вот эта черта и свела на нет популяцию таких людей.

Ну и мы, отростки так сказать, получили образование, добились понимания умом те ценности, которые родители пытались нам привить, воспитать интуитивно, молча, вне слов и лозунгов. Поняли, осознали. Но как применить это знание? Нас всех разметало, по разным странам и даже континентам. Сравнивая и анализируя чужую жизнь, мы смогли посмотреть со стороны на самих себя...

а дальше - только молчаливые вопросы.
Поучительную историю поведали мне брать по разуму из МИФИ.
сталкивается фотон с нуклоном. нуклон его спрашивает - ты что? частица или волна? какой у тебя заряд - положительный или отрицательный? (типа, думает, куда его в составе атома определить, ну и ждет, что фотон из вежливости остановится, как все приличные частицы, дабы выразить почтение и восхищение великолепием нуклона, который в составе атома и всех многочисленных отрицательных электронов, чувствует себя "частицей значительной")
фотон-таки пытается что-то там пояснить на своей скорости света, что, мол, я вроде как и частицей могу быть, и волной... и типа массы покоя у меня нету... и заряда нету, потому что я, по сути-то, калибровочный бозон...
но пока это до нуклона дойдет...
тут еще и все негативные электронные обочки встают дыбом, мол что такое - кто это тут летает, кто это нас тут возмущает! что значит "калибровочный" - это кто нас тут смеет калибровать! 
в общем, фотону легче нафиг рассеяться на электронных оболочках и не париться... а распространяться дальше, в малька другом направлении... космос большой, электромагнитное и гравитационное взаимодействия есть везде... может повезет, долетим до холодного межгалактического газа, который в состоянии переватить высокоэнергичный фотон... хоть газу теплее станет. и то хорошо.
берем любой прикольный танец из кино. если по костюмам не совсем ясно какой штат - называем "трайбл" данс. 
скачиваем музыку из интернета.
набираем побольше народу - для эффектности.
в течение недели пытаемся всех собрать. не получается. поэтому ставим танец в последние два дня.
над движениями можно особо не работать - кажды танцор настолько хорошо сам по себе танцует, что украсит своим присутсвием сцену по определению.
можно немножко поработать над построением - чтобы хотя бы люди знали, в каком месте сцены им танцевать и не очень мешали соседям, потому что всем надо показать свой талант.
выбираем костюм - дхоти (либо черные, либо белые - потому что белые керальствие сари у всех есть), разноцветные кофты (это типа дизайн - проявление утонченности вкуса при выборе цвета кофт, варианты - желтая, красная и зеленая), яркая дупатта (лучше всего красная!)
вот и все. теперь главное обойти побольше родственников и знакомых и пригласить их на программу.
22nd-Aug-2012 09:30 pm - Notes from class – Spirit

Once upon a time I practiced 4th tei ha tei hi adavu (it is long and quite tuff to do), in front of the mirror. I did as usual, controlled hands, araimandi, turns, leans, etc. Movement was NOT coming proper. I did many times, at last got angry, tired and stopped. It was early morning, very quiet and serene, filled with rising sun shine. Suddenly a picture came to my mind - road to Kanyakumari, running through vast valley, rock hills scattered here and there, clear morning sky – and huge, full-semicircle of rainbow above the hills! The same minute I got it. I felt spirit of this adavu – straight vast valley, hills scattered behind, and wide, nice bow of rainbow - from one side of valley, to another one!

The truth is, it is not body which is dancing. Dancing is the spirit, via/through body. Inspite of everything - pain, decease, restrictions, fatigue... If spirit is dancing, nothing can stop this flow.

As Anna Pavlova said, “ballet is not about legs, it is soul dancing”... free spirit, flying on the wings of inspiration.

7th-Aug-2012 07:19 am - во какого я цвета!

tests.ukr.net

Какого цвета Ваша аура?

Вас окружает аура аметистового цвета

Фиолетовый цвет ауры - знак человека с большим сердцем, готового понять всех и вся. Ваша воля, Вы бы учили людей жить в гармонии или, в крайнем случае, подались бы с Корпусом мира в какую-нибудь страну третьего мира. Вы высокодуховны, заботливы, любите музыку и занимаетесь несколькими полезными делами одновременно. Вид страданий и горя для Вас невыносим - однако Вы не прячетесь от них, а отважно боретесь за то, чтобы этот мир стал чуточку лучшим местом.

Вы идете за своей высокой целью (и порой так увлекаетесь, что забываете о некоторых реалиях грешной земли). Впрочем, в нужный момент Вы способны проявлять достаточно здравого смысла. Люди с аметистовой аурой обладают сильной волей и добрым сердцем. Они из тех, на ком держится этот мир.


23rd-Jun-2012 09:06 pm - Costumes and decorations
What is "traditional"? and is this "traditional" (in sense = "widely accepted now-a-days") the only "right" way?
Fashion is very good example, how fast "traditional" becomes "awkward", and vice versa, new and strange becomes "homely" and too "casual".
But there are things which never change. True elegance speaks for itself, in short and simple way - we see and cannot withdraw the eyes. it captivates and bewitches. O
ne truly elegant lady told, "The most simple things are the most difficult to attain in this world". But once attained, those simple things shine through ages, ever changing fashions and "traditions". 

South Indian costume, as it is depicted in sculptures of Pallava, Cola, and Vijayanagara-Nayak periods.

http://www.natyam.ru/costume.html


Ancient Canon of Elegance - Decorations of temple sculptures
http://www.natyam.ru/decorations.html

21st-Jun-2012 12:39 pm - Royal Shrines of the South
Three new articles about three famous royal temples of Tamil Nadu (http://www.natyam.ru):

Kailasanatha temple (Kanchipuram) - royal shrine of Pallava dynasty
Kailasanatha temples gives impression, first of all, of ancient grandour. Huge sculptures, innumerable bas-reliefs, convey feeling of powerful, all-mighty monarchy of those times.
http://www.natyam.ru/kailasanatha.html


Gangaikonda Colapuram temple - royal temple of Cola dynasty
Gangaikonda temple is famous for its sculptures. The main spirit of this temple as would describe as serene, dignified worship. 
http://www.natyam.ru/gangaikondacolapuram.html


Darasuram - royal temple of Colas as well
Darasuram feature is numerous sculptures and bas-reliefs depicting dance and music. 
www.natyam.ru/darasuram.html





30th-Apr-2012 02:27 pm - About dance

Dance in universal language, clear and pure language of living feelings.
Dance only if have something to say. 
Something which is important for others, which will help people to understand themselves better.

Started huge and interesting research - 

Gandharva tradition of music described in Natya Sastra and Dattilam:


inspiring. this ancient musical tradition is absolutely beautiful.
according to scholars, gandhava music was a set of strict ruled regulating musical forms, which were the only admitted to serve worship purposes (secular music was not so greatly restricted by rules and was called 'gitaka'.

that's why in such sources as Natya Sastra and Dattilam, Gandharva tradition is given the first and major importance,
the rules are formulated so precisely, that today we can reconstruct this completely forgotten musical forms and hear how it was played in 1-4 centuries AD.

the basic question was - which scale they used. the intervals between notes are given in srutis, artificial measure, aimed to present complicated system of intervals calculated using geometrical progression, in simple additive terms.

previous research in scales helped a lot to understand the nature of each of 22 srutis (those guyes proved to have individuality!), and formulate the scales in modern, physical and mathematical terms.

my sincere wish is to complete this wonderful research. this music brings flavour of ancient harmony. composing music in those ancient jati-s is my utmost and the most sacred dream.
9th-Apr-2012 02:56 am - perfectly tuned scale


new research in carnatic music scales - http://inse.hut4.ru/mela_1.html#tune


24th-Dec-2011 07:46 pm - Moving to my web-page
Have moved all my stuff to my web-page: http://www.inse.hut4.ru/
Je voudrais partager quelque chose très important
J'ai appris récemment
nous vivons à apprendre
souvent, nous n'avons pas remarqué combien le temps est compté
nous vivons dans passées et présentes
Nous ne pensons pas à l'avenir
nous nous sentons comme des événements passés déterminent notre vie actuelle
ce n'est pas comme ça
la vie est dirigé par le futur lui-même
il n'ya pas de présent sans passé
mais il n'y a ni passé ni présent sans avenir
16th-Oct-2011 08:05 pm - Svarajati and Varnam

Before Varna occupied the place, Svarajathi played the important role. Svarajatis are are of two kinds. One serving as a vocalise and the other used in dancing.

Vocal Svarajati had Pallavi, Anupallavi and or more charanams. Some of them do not have Anupallavi, as we find in the structure of a keertana with Samashti Charana. The theme of the song may be either devotional, heroic or amorous. Since a passage of jathis (rhythmic solfeg gio) was originally an inegral part, this composition tightly acquired the name 'svarajathi'. It contains swara (musical tone), jathi and padas (words). Some of svarajathis are available today do not contain jathis, but still retain the same name.

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16th-Oct-2011 07:56 pm - Varnam
Varnam

Varnam is the most complicated item of Bharatanatyam Margam comprising either Nritta or Nritya aspects. Main mood of Varnam may be either Sringara or Bhakti (devotion expressed through love to God, called Bhakti-Sringara).

In Varnam Nayaki (the heroine) addresses her Lord directly or indirectly (by appealing to her close friend, Sakhi, asking help and convey her message). She requests help, laments, reproaches or expresses her love and devotion. In Varnam the God is considered as Nayaka (the hero), i.e. abstract idea of God finds its manifestation in God-like human creature.

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16th-Oct-2011 07:35 pm - Swarajathi
Swarajathi

In Carnatic music, Swarajathi is understood as simple composition, comprising Pallavi, Anupallavi (not always) and one or several Charanas, all with sahityam. Charanas are rendered in swaras and then in sahityam, which is feature of swarajathi comparing to kriti or kirtanam. In musical training swarajathis are sung as preparation for Varnams.

Swarajathis are very old musical form. Originally, this was a dance form containing Jathis, which were later excluded by Syama Sastri.

In dance under Swarajathis are understood compositions very close to Varnams by structure. The difference is that instead of Muktai swaras and Muktai swara sahityam (like in Varmnam), Swarajathis comprises Muktai swara-jathi, i.e. swaras mingled with Sollukattus, without any sahityam after. Another difference is that Charanam swaras are sung first followed by Charana sahityam.

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SVARAJATI

Svarajati and jatisvarams are musical forms that are familiar to both music and dance students. As the names of these forms suggest, they have
• swara - solfa
• jati – rhythmic syllables
• sAhityam – text

The architect of svarajati as a musical form is Melattur Veerabhadraiah who lived in the 18th century. His svarajati in the rAgam husEni is the earliest example of a svarajati. Shyama Sastri later composed svarajatis that are concert worthy.

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16th-Oct-2011 06:08 pm - VARNAMS by Smt.Rajashree Ramakrishna

Smt.Rajashree Ramakrishna presented a lecture-demonstration titled “An analysis of the structure of the varnam with special reference to the styles of varnam composers” at Shri Parthasarathy Swami Sabha, Chennai on 23rd Dec2008.

VARNAMS

INTRODUCTION

A varNam is a musical form which has in it all the elements of gItam, jatisvaram and svarajati. It prepares the students with adequate skills to be able to learn a kriti. The first half of a varNam which has profuse vowel extensions resembles a kriti while the second half beginning with ettugaDa pallavi and caraNam swarams resembles a svarajati or a jatisvaram.

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16th-Oct-2011 02:32 pm - Varnam in music

I have found very exact and compact description of Varnam as musical composition in this blog: http://arvindsdad.blogspot.com/search/label/Varnam. There are also many links to music files.

Varnam is a form of song in the Carnatic music repertoire. A varnam is a relatively long piece and can range from 30 minutes to up to an hour. It is usually set to Aadi or Ata tala. It is the center piece in a recital of music or dance. The lyrics are simple and consist mostly of long syllables and swara phrases of various lengths which bring out the essential features of the raga. It has two types: Taana varnam and Pada varnam.

Varnams are considered as vocal exercises in a particular raga. The patterns in a varnam are characteristic patterns of a particular raga. Varnams are considered as the complex of the vocal exercises in Carnatic Music. They are designed to help develop voice culture and proper control of rhythm. Indeed, varnams are often practiced in double and triple speeds and proper rhythmic control (tala) must be kept.

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16th-Oct-2011 11:02 am - And again about Varnam

I was thinking how dance comes into body when we study new composition. Balasaraswati was ingeniously right when said that padam is the music danced.
It true in case of any composition. Varnam is the best example.

First of all, the mood of Ragam comes – how if flows, how its shades are unfolded by different patterns of swaras…Ragam creates space or vessel for emotions expressed by Sahityam. After getting together with the melody you start feeling like to express more – and ask yourself which bhavam the composer tried to convey through words.

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5th-Oct-2011 09:06 pm - Variety in Varnams

This interesting writing-up i found at this blog by Sriram V. This was Sumathi Krishnan’s topic for lec-demonstration at the Music Academy on 17th December 2010. She is a senior disciple of R Vedavalli. According to her, the earliest traceable varnam is that of Govindasamayya, a composer of the 17th century. Early varnams appear to have largely been in Telugu and later there have been Sanskrit, Tamil, Malayalam and Kannada varnams as well.

Varnams appear to have grown in volume over the years. The Sangita Sarvartha Sara Sangrahamu of Veena Ramanujayya has only 12 in its 1885 edition. There are 25 in Pallavi Svarakalpavalli (1900) which has the compositions of Veena Kuppayyar and Tiruvottiyur Tyagier. There are 40 varnams in the Sangita Sampradaya Pradarsini of Subbarama Dikshitar (1904). In TK Govinda Rao’s Varnasagaram (2006) there are 500 and in the Tana Varna Tarangini of BM Sundaram there are 806.

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The Traditional Repertoire of the Tiruttani Temple Dancers by Saskia C. Kersenboom

The fieldwork for this study was conducted in Tiruttani (in Tamil Nadu, South India) in 1985-6 with the generous help of the Netherlands Foundation for the Advancement of Tropical Research (WOTRO).

Introduction

The Term Devadasi means literally ‘slave of god’. This translation led by early Christian missionaries to compare her to the Christian nun (the ‘bride of Christ’). Since the Devadasi was allowed to choose a patron after her dedication and to bear children, this comparison proved to be misleading and even harmful to the Hindu tradition. For the Devadasi was neither a vestal or ascetic nun, nor their opposite a public woman or sacred harlot. Her function and identity was a third possibility away from the above mentioned binary choice: she was primary a ritual specialist whose professional qualifications ware rooted in her quality of auspiciousness; her powers were believed to bring good luck and to ward off evil.

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Invocatory items of Bharatanatyam Margam

Thodayamangalam

As a musical composition, Thodaya Mangalam is a set of songs, composed by saints like  Sri Badhradri Ramadasa Swami Sri Annamacharya, and Sri Vijayagopala Swamigal and compiled like a garland by Marudhanallur Sathguru   Swamigal.

The songs in Thodaya Mangalam are in praise of Lord Rama, Lord Krishna and Lord Srinivasa, (various forms and names of Lord Maha Vishnu) and composed in sanskrit and telugu in ghana ragas like Naatai, Aarabi, Madhyamaavathi, Saaveri, and Panthuvarali.

It is sung as "Aahvana Keerthanam" (songs to welcome the Lord with mangalam) in the beginning of Sampradhaya Bhajan.

Thodaya Mangalam is sung before dance kutcheri as well. They believe that Today Mangalam has some purifying and auspicious effect, thus it is necessary to sing it to provide pure devotinal atmosphere for successful performance.

In Vazhuvur style Thodaya Mangalam is used as the first item in praise of Lord Gnyana Sabeshar of Vazhuvoor. Also it was used in Bhagavata Mela Natakam.

Thodayamangalam is accompanied by melaprapti*: nattuvanar, vocalist, orchestra members (flute, mridangam, kanjeera, ghatam), who also sings OM besides playing.

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28th-Sep-2011 11:25 am - Special temple repertoire

Special temple repertoire

The present day practice of presenting Varnams, Keertanas, Javalis,Tillanas in Nadaswaram concerts is of recent origin, perhaps 60-70 years. Earlier, concerts at the temples were significantly different. Ragas were rendered with their full embellishments/laya structure and appropriate to the presiding deity.

The Nitya Pooja or daily prayers normally comprised 6-8rituals. Each time an appropriate raga was rendered on the Nadaswaram. This wasthe tradition and continues even today.

The expert on Agama Sastra Sri Ramaswamy Dikshitar, has laid down a detailed structure for Nadaswaram recitals at the temples.

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21st-Sep-2011 09:51 am - Flow of music

Natya Sastra stipulates that a varna shoud have four constituents: arohi (ascending order of swaras), avarohi (descending order of swaras), sthayi (resting or elongation of swara) and sanchari (movements of swara, i.e. embellishments or gamakas, when one note is made multidimensional, like moving round, alive).

"arohi cha avarohi cha sthayi sancharinou tatha"

Flow of raga, patterns of melody, inspire people to dance. Choreography of Jathiswaram, for example, feflects each and every lakshana of the raga – arohi and avarohi are shown through continuous flow of adavus, by using different jathi to portray the shape of each swara sequence, by using different kalai to show dynamics - how intensity of voice, power of each swara is increasing up and decreasing down...

Sthayi are shown in postures or ascents, which can be put in beginning of some sequence, in between - as ascents, or in the end, as final “crown” of adavu sequence.

Sanchari are shown through tiny embellishments like attomi, small hand movements, very subtle and delicate decorations, they help us to appreciate music, give special pleasure when the soul just flies up elevated by innocent joy of seeing something nice and beautiful.

Choreography cannot be mechanical reflection of thalam. Thalam is skeleton, backbone of dance. Music is the soul of dance. It put prana in and makes mathematically precise structure of thalam patterns move, move in according to the flow of music - i.e. to dance...

10th-Sep-2011 04:19 pm - Kutcheri Paddhati

Kutcheri Paddhati

The modern concert format or kutcheri paddhati was formulated by the late Ariyakudi Ramanuja Iyengar in the 1930s when Karnatak music was going through a period of flux, which the elite of Madras, which dominated bodies like the Madras Music Academy, trying to streamline it to suit the middle classes who were also growing in musical maturity.

By introducing the compact formula in his own concerts he set a new trend. Ariyakudi reduced the concert to manageable proportions and duration, with a mix of heavy and light items so as to sustain audience interest.

The introductory Varnam is followed by a kriti dedicated to the deity Ganapathy, the remover of obstacles, and a few other short kritis with or without brief alapana.

Midway through the recital a kriti with scope for an elaborate alapana, niraval and kalpana swara is selected. Taken on to the end of this piece is the tani avartanam, where the percussionists display their skills.

After a few short items, the weighty Ragam-Tanam_Pallavi is offered by some (though many get away without it), which takes up three-quarters to one hour.

The recital then begins to wind up with hymns, padams, javalis, tillana, slokas in ragamalika (a chain of ragas), folk songs… The concluding piece is the auspicious Mangalam composed by Tyagaraja.

Reference

The Madras Quartet by Indira Menon, Roli Books, New Delhi, 1999

10th-Sep-2011 04:17 pm - Ragam-Tanam-Pallavi

Ragam-Tanam-Pallavi

The piece de resistance of a Karnatak concert is the Ragam-Tanam-Pallavi (RTP). This is a very lengthy item of pure manodharma. It starts with an elaborate alapana which is often split into two parts. The first part consists of an impressionistic sketch of the raga painted with broad brush strokes. This is followed by a detailed treatment with all the subtleties, Nuances, brigas and virtuosity that the artist can command.
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10th-Sep-2011 04:14 pm - Manodharma sangeeta

Manodharma sangeeta

Manodharma sangeeta or extempore improvisation forms the acid test of a musician’s calibre. It is the creative component, giving full freedom of expression to the artiste without departing from the basic grammar of music. Every musician in the Indian system is a music-maker if not a vaggeyakara and can evolve a highly individual style depending upon the quality and timbre of the voice and the intellectual capacity. The innate compulsion to improvise is fundamental to Indian classical music and Tyagaraja understood this very well when he gathered various musical ideal together and wove them into a complete musical expression in his kriti while when at the same time allowing enough room for improvisation. By creating music with scope for manodharma the Trinity were able to satisfy the emotional as well as the intellectual aspirations of the musician.

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10th-Sep-2011 04:11 pm - Raga and Gamaka

Raga and Gamaka

Indian music is based on melody and the raga is pivotal to the system. Raga (what which pleases) is a melodic structure governed by rigid rules but it allows the practitioners a great deal of freedom to improvise. Ragas are derived from scales with particular combinations of notes with a definite relationship to the tonic which when sung evoke certain moods and emotions. The swaras of a raga have to be strictly adhered to and only permitted deviations which enhance the aesthetic quality of the raga are possible.

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10th-Sep-2011 04:00 pm - Kalpita Sangita
Kalpita Sangita

Modern Karnatak music was born on the banks of the Kaveri at the time of the Trinity (18th-19th century). It consists of kalpita sangita (composed music) and manodharma sangita (extempore music). Kalpita sangita is made up of geetham, for beginners, varnam, which is the foundation of the musical edifice, and kriti, a three-part composition.

Varnam

The Varnam is generally song at the beginning of the concert and is regarded as a warming-up exercise. But it has great intellectual and aesthetic beauty and there are very few musicians (Veena Dhanammal one of them) who have given it importance that it deserves. There are two types of Varnams – tanavarnam for music and padavarnam for dance. The former has very little sahityam and more of swara passages; while the latter has more sahitya for abhinaya (interpretation). Most of popular varnams are composed by the musicians of the Tanjavur court in the 19th century.

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3rd-Aug-2011 09:07 pm - Jathiswaram

Jathiswaram

Jathiswarams brings out three aspects of dance – unity of music, rhythm and movements. Ragam and thalam are the major aspects of Jathiswaram.

Raga can be understood as special musical space where certain patterns of swaras or tunes live in. Raga has it own mood. It guides flow of melody as cannel guides the river.

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2nd-Aug-2011 08:12 pm - Alarippu
Alarippu

Before starting performance we need to create its atmosphere first. We need to create special time and space environment of dance. In Natya Shastra Bharata Muni said that dance is of divine origin, it connects higher worlds of Gods with the Earth.

Space of the stage becomes point of this connection for the period of performance where higher world enters casual reality and penetrates further through the hearts of people watching it.

Thus, it is important to arrange place and time properly. Simple and exact rhythm of Alarippu adjusts flow of time to the tempo of dance. Rhythm synchronizes heart beats of dancer, musicians and spectators.
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22nd-Jul-2011 10:19 pm - Natyam

Today Seetheram Sir said that Natya comprise dance, music, thalam, and bhavam. They are always together.

Thalam is inner life of Natyam. Music is soul of Natyam. Bhavam is essence of Natyam.

Bhavam is everywhere - in dance, in everyday speech, in every moment of life.

Thinking about the place of dance, I wanted to understand, what was the environment of Sadir in medieval South India? I found the answer in wonderful book “Nityasumangali” by Saskia C. Kersenboom.

Sacred ground of South Indian temple

For Hindus, the temple is “the place where the world-order is brought to life, in actu, where its battles are fought, and the ultimate victory of the good is celebrated… In the temple, the clashing universal forces are brought under control; divine power is very efficiently present within its walls.”

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18th-Jul-2011 10:31 am - Art
Art is international language in which mind can speak to mind, heart to heart, where lips are dumb.
The Arts need no translation; they speak the universal mother tongue.
Centuries do not age them, custom does not stale them, boundaries do not exist for them.
Their message is for every country, every tongue.

Annie Besant

Art elevates. It gives strength and clarity of vision. It connects three levels of human existence (physiological, psychological and spiritual), harmonizes and balances them. In dance, rhythm and melody, space and movement, inner feelings and emotions (bhava) and emotional flavor created (rasa) are connected and perfectly tuned. Which is perfect, which is beautiful, which brings harmony and happiness is the art. Art is eternal ode to life. Art is the “voice of life” itself.

Purpose of dance

What is the meaning and purpose of dance? What is the function of the Art in our society?

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Classification of Nayika-s and Nayaka-s

Classification of heroines (Nayika) is given always relating to her hero (Nayaka).

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16th-Jul-2011 09:54 am - Abhinaya by Kalanidhi Narayanan

Abhinaya by Kalanidhi Narayanan

Abhinaya being interpretation of lyrics with help of hand gestures and facial expression, is more of less similar in all dance styles. Some styles are more dramatic and exaggerated, more histrionic, while others favor a subtle approach. In Bharatanatya stress is on clarity and subtlety. It is an art form based on suggestion and hence over-dramatization must be avoided at all costs.

Abhinaya can be expressed in two different ways: stylistic (Natya dharmi) and naturalistic (Loka dharmi). It would be appropriate to use both the styles in a balanced proportion as Natya dharmi gives clarity while Loka dharmi gives one a flavor of the actual experience.

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15th-Jul-2011 09:38 pm - Reminiscences of S Sharada Teacher

S Sharada - Advice from a veteran

Spirituality of Bharatanatyam

Essentially all Indians, however modern, have deep within them a spiritual streak, though quite often they are ashamed to exhibit it. This façade should be broken. The spiritual aspect of art, if emphasized, would help in transforming skeptical attitudes seen today. If youngsters are taught to understand Bharatanatyam and to use the art as it was meant to be, then they would find themselves changing in their day to day life as well.

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14th-Jul-2011 08:39 pm - S Sharada Teacher about Dance-dramas

S Sharada Teacher about Dance-dramas

A dance-drama should not exceed two hours. While presenting a dance-drama, care should be taken to select an inspiring theme. Only those parts which are full of rasa should be elaborated, the other parts should be used as links. The sloka-s should be selected and the number f players, major and minor, determined. The number of characters should be kept to a minimum; there is no need to fill the stage with characters. In certain dance-dramas, the patra pravesam (entrance of the character) is the description of the character. For a major character, the entry should be slow, for a moderate character medium and for the minor character, fast. During the patra pravesam, if other characters are on stage, they could depict the idea of the new entrant through abhinaya. This should be done without distracting attention from the main entrant.

The dance-drama should come to a close with Nritta and all participants should be present on stage for the mangalam. From the point of view of performance and presentation in a dance-drama , there are no minor characters and major characters. Everyone of the dancers on the stage is expected t be absorbed in the presentation and communicate through abhinaya the idea being enacted. When artists support each other and present the best, it is called rangam, and it is exalted. This shows the unity among artists.

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14th-Jul-2011 08:15 pm - Bharatanatyam Margam

Bharatanatyam Margam

Alarippu

The word ‘Alarippu’ means ‘blooming’ (root ‘alaru’ may be found in telugu, tamil and other Dravidian languages). Alarippu is short invocatory Nritta item. It’s meaning is paying obeisance or salutation to God, guru and audience. It opens performance and also opens dancer’s body – limbs are warmed up by simple movements, mind is focused by precise rhythm and emotions are activated by harmony and beauty of traditional choreography and inner joy of dance, so dear to each dancer.

Alarippu can be performed in different thalas and jatis, traditional alarrippu-s are rupaka, misra chapu and chaturasra eka thalam alarippu.

S Sharada Teacher explained Alarippu as follows:

'The Alarippu movements begin with the eyes and neck and move progressively downwards. This is essencially a dance dedicating each part of the body before commencing the actual program. Alarippu conveys happyness. 'Nanadanti anena devata - iti naandi.' That which makes the deva-s happy is naandi. Hence the Alarippu is like the naandi sloka.Hence the Alarippu is like the naandi sloka. Since this is dedicatory dance, it has to be simple, setting the stage for the more complicated dance to follow.'

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